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References for Articles

Ascophyllum nodosum (Kelp)

kelp under water, kelp forest
Kelp Forest

1. Lordan S, Ross RP, Stanton C. (June 14, 2011). Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases. Published in Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(6):1056-1100. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131561/

2. Seagreens.com (2013). Nutritional Calculator. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.seagreens.co.uk/University/SeagreensNutritionalCalculator.aspx

3. van Ginneken VJ, Helsper JP, de Visser W, van Keulen H, Brandenburg WA (June 2011). Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from North Atlantic and tropical seas. Published in Lipids in health and disease. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21696609

4. Abu R, Jiang Z, Ueno M, Okimura T, Yamaguchi K, Oda T (May 2013). In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum. Published in International journal of biological macromolecules. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23643974

5. Apostolidis E, Lee CM (April 2010). In vitro potential of Ascophyllum nodosum phenolic antioxidant-mediated alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibition. Published in Journal of food science. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20492300

6. Dutot M, Fagon R, Hemon M, Rat P (August 2012). Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-senescence activities of a phlorotannin-rich natural extract from brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. Publsihed in Applied biochemistry and biotechnology. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22692848

7. Braden KW, Blanton JR Jr, Allen VG, Pond KR, Miller MF (September 2004). Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation: a preharvest intervention for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in feedlot steers. Published in Journal of food protection. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15453570

8. Saveetha Kandasamy, Wajahatullah Khan, Franklin Evans, Alan T. Critchley, and Balakrishnan Prithiviraj (January 2012). Tasco: A Product of Ascophyllum nodosum Enhances Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection. Published in Marine Drugs. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3280538/

9. Jeannette Vera, Jorge Castro, Alberto Gonzalez, and Alejandra Moenne (December 2011). Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants. Published in Marine Drugs. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3280573/

10. Nakano K, Kim D, Jiang Z, Ueno M, Okimura T, Yamaguchi K, Oda T (2012). Immunostimulatory activities of the sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan from Ascophyllum nodosum in in vivo and in vitro systems. Published in Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22878179

11. Bahar B, O'Doherty JV, Hayes M, Sweeney T (2012). Extracts of brown seaweeds can attenuate the bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory response in the porcine colon ex vivo. Published in Journal of animal science. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23365280

12. Seema Pateland Arun Goyal (June 2012). The current trends and future perspectives of prebiotics research: a review. Published in 3 Biotech. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3376865/

13. Hall AC, Fairclough AC, Mahadevan K, Paxman JR (February 2012). Ascophyllum nodosum enriched bread reduces subsequent energy intake with no effect on post-prandial glucose and cholesterol in healthy, overweight males. A pilot study. Published in Appetite. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22100188

14. Seema Patel (September 2012). Therapeutic importance of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds: updating the recent findings. Published in 3 Biotech. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3433884/

15. N. Sithranga Boopathy and K. Kathiresan (2010). Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview. Published in Journal of Oncology. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3065217/

16. Riou D, Colliec-Jouault S, Pinczon du Sel D, Bosch S, Siavoshian S, Le Bert V, Tomasoni C, Sinquin C, Durand P, Roussakis C (May-June 1996). Antitumor and antiproliferative effects of a fucan extracted from ascophyllum nodosum against a non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line. Published in Anticancer research. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8702239

17. Nakayasu S, Soegima R, Yamaguchi K, Oda T (April 2009). Biological activities of fucose-containing polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Published in Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19352011

18. Zhang J, Tiller C, Shen J, Wang C, Girouard GS, Dennis D, Barrow CJ, Miao M, Ewart HS (November 2007). Antidiabetic properties of polysaccharide- and polyphenolic-enriched fractions from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. Published in Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18066114

19. Mauray S, Sternberg C, Theveniaux J, Millet J, Sinquin C, Tapon-Bretaudire J, Fischer AM (November 1995). Venous antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities of a fucodan fraction. Published in Thrombosis and haemostasis. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8607110

20. Jane Teas, Sylvia Vena, D. Lindsie Cone, and Mohammad Irhimeh (June 2013). The consumption of seaweed as a protective factor in the etiology of breast cancer: proof of principle. Published in Journal of Applied Phycology. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3651528/

21. Seagreens.com (2011). Seagreens® Practitioner Healthcare Summary - 24th Edition, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://www.seagreens.com/University/PractitionerHealthcareSummaryView.aspx

22. Joanne L. Simmons-Boyce, Sara L. Purcell, Carolanne M. Nelson, and Shawna L. MacKinnon (August 2009). Dietary Ascophyllum nodosum Increases Urinary Excretion of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats. Published in The Journal of Nutrition. Retrieved May 22, 2013 from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/8/1487.long

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Edible Seaweeds

1. Lordan S, Ross RP, Stanton C. (June 14, 2011). Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases. Published in Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(6):1056-1100. Retrieved June 24, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131561/

2. Seema Patel (September 2012). Therapeutic importance of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds: updating the recent findings. Published in 3 Biotech. Retrieved June 24, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3433884/

3. Dennis J. McHugh (2003). A guide to the seaweed industry. Section 8: Seaweeds Used as Human Food. Published by Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved June 24, 2013 from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4765e/y4765e0b.htm

4. Irina Bright (2013). Ascophyllum Nodosum and Its Health Benefits. Retrieved June 24, 2013 from: http://kill-tiredness-now.com/ascophyllum.html

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Seaweed Benefits

seaweed beautiful
© Ryan Poplin

1. Lordan S, Ross RP, Stanton C. (June 14, 2011). Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases. Published in Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(6):1056-1100. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131561/

2. Seema Patel (September 2012). Therapeutic importance of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds: updating the recent findings. Published in 3 Biotech. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3433884/

3. Laurie O'Sullivan, Brian Murphy, Peter McLoughlin, Patrick Duggan, Peadar G. Lawlor, Helen Hughes, and Gillian E. Gardiner (July 2010). Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications. Published in Marine Drugs. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920542/

4. Nicolantonio D'Orazio, Eugenio Gemello, Maria Alessandra Gammone, Massimo de Girolamo, Cristiana Ficoneri, and Graziano Riccioni (March 2012). Fucoxantin: A Treasure from the Sea. Published in Marine Drugs. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347018/

5. Kajal Chakraborty, Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha Praveen, Kodayan Kizekadath Vijayan, and Gonugontla Syda Rao (January 2013). Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. (Phaeophyta, Sargassaceae) collected from Gulf of Mannar. Published in Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3609390/

6. Graciliana Lopes, Carla Sousa, Lus R. Silva, Eugnia Pinto, Paula B. Andrade, Joo Bernardo, Teresa Mouga, and Patrcia Valento (February 2012). Can Phlorotannins Purified Extracts Constitute a Novel Pharmacological Alternative for Microbial Infections with Associated Inflammatory Conditions? Published in PLoS One. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271118/

7. N. Sithranga Boopathy and K. Kathiresan (February 2011). Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview. Published in Journal of Oncology. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3065217/

8. Sheeja Aravindan, Caroline R. Delma, Somasundaram S. Thirugnanasambandan, Terence S. Herman, and Natarajan Aravindan (April 2013). Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Deliverables from Sea: First-Hand Evidence on the Efficacy, Molecular Targets and Mode of Action for Multifarious Polyphenols from Five Different Brown-Algae. Published in PLoS One. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3628576/

9. Irina Bright (2013). Seagreens. Published in Kill-Tiredness-Now.com. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://kill-tiredness-now.com/seagreens.html

10. Costa LS, Fidelis GP, Telles CB, Dantas-Santos N, Camara RB, Cordeiro SL, Costa MS, Almeida-Lima J, Melo-Silveira RF, Oliveira RM, Albuquerque IR, Andrade GP, Rocha HA (June 2011). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of heterofucans from the seaweed Sargassum filipendula. Published in Marine Drugs. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21747741

11. Tiago H. Silva, Anabela Alves, Elena G. Popa, Lara L. Reys, Manuela E. Gomes, Rui A. Sousa, Simone S. Silva, Joo F. Mano, and Rui L. Reis (October 2012). Marine algae sulfated polysaccharides for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches. Published in Biomatter. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3568112/

12. Misurcov L, Skrovnkov S, Samek D, Ambrozov J, Machu L (2012). Health benefits of algal polysaccharides in human nutrition. Published in Advances in food and nutrition research. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22909979

13. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (June 1995). Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. Published in The Journal of nutrition. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7782892

14. Jane Teas, Sylvia Vena, D. Lindsie Cone, and Mohammad Irhimeh (June 2013). The consumption of seaweed as a protective factor in the etiology of breast cancer: proof of principle. Published in Journal of Applied Phycology. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3651528/

15. Yamasaki-Miyamoto Y, Yamasaki M, Tachibana H, Yamada (September 2009). Fucoidan induces apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Published in Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19754176

16. Smyth PP (2003). Role of iodine in antioxidant defence in thyroid and breast disease. Published in BioFactors (Oxford, England). Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14757962

17. Shamsabadi FT, Khoddami A, Fard SG, Abdullah R, Othman HH, Mohamed S (February 2013). Comparison of Tamoxifen with Edible Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii L.) Extract in Suppressing Breast Tumor. Published in Nutrition and cancer. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23441613

18. Yang L, Wang P, Wang H, Li Q, Teng H, Liu Z, Yang W, Hou L, Zou X (June 2013). Fucoidan Derived from Undaria pinnatifida Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells via the ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway. Published in Marine Drugs. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23752353

19. Mary JS, Vinotha P, Pradeep AM (2012). Screening for in vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Seaweed, Sargassum sp. Against Hep-2 and MCF-7 Cancer Cell Lines. Published in Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23464406

20. Hyunkyoung Lee, Jong-Shu Kim, and Euikyung Kim (2012). Fucoidan from Seaweed Fucus vesiculosus Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Lung Cancer Cell via PI3K-Akt-mTOR Pathways. Published in PLoS One. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3511566/

21. Kim SK, Karagozlu MZ (2011). Marine algae: natural product source for gastrointestinal cancer treatment. Published in Advances in food and nutrition research. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22054950

22. Hosokawa M, Kudo M, Maeda H, Kohno H, Tanaka T, Miyashita K (November 2004). Fucoxanthin induces apoptosis and enhances the antiproliferative effect of the PPARgamma ligand, troglitazone, on colon cancer cells. Published in Biochimica et biophysica acta. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15535974

23. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US Department of Health and Human Services (November 2011). What is Metabolic Syndrome? Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms/

24. Teas J, Balden ME, Chiriboga DE, Davis JR, Sarris AJ, Braverman LE (2009). Could dietary seaweed reverse the metabolic syndrome? Published in Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19713172

25. Vincent JT van Ginneken, Johannes PFG Helsper, Willem de Visser, Herman van Keulen, and Willem A Brandenburg (June 2011). Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas. Published in Lipids in Health and Disease. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3131239/

26. Sarah G. Obican, Gloria D. Jahnke, Offie P. Soldin, and Anthony R. Scialli (August 2012). Teratology Public Affairs Committee Position Paper: Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy. Published in Birth Defects Research. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637994/

27. Janet Helen Fitton (September 2011). Therapies from Fucoidan; Multifunctional Marine Polymers. Published in Marine Drugs. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210604/

28. Juan Peng, Jian-Ping Yuan, Chou-Fei Wu, and Jiang-Hai Wang (October 2011). Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid Present in Brown Seaweeds and Diatoms: Metabolism and Bioactivities Relevant to Human Health. Published in Marine Drugs. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210606/

29. Ratih Pangestuti and Se-Kwon Kim (May 2011). Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae. Published in Marine Drugs. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3111183/

30. Naoki Mori, Kazunori Nakasone, Koh Tomimori, and Chie Ishikawa (May 2012). Beneficial effects of fucoidan in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Published in World Journal of Gastroenterology. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3351773/

31. Taoda N, Shinji E, Nishii K, Nishioka S, Yonezawa Y, Uematsu J, Hattori E, Yamamoto H, Kawano M, Tsurudome M, O'Brien M, Yamashita T, Komada H (December 2008). Fucoidan inhibits parainfluenza virus type 2 infection to LLCMK2 cells. Published in Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan). Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19129677

32. Vo TS, Ngo DH, Ta QV, Kim SK (September 2011). Marine organisms as a therapeutic source against herpes simplex virus infection. Published in European journal of pharmaceutical sciences. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21782018

33. Trinchero J, Ponce NM, Crdoba OL, Flores ML, Pampuro S, Stortz CA, Salomn H, Turk G (May 2009). Antiretroviral activity of fucoidans extracted from the brown seaweed Adenocystis utricularis. Published in Phytotherapy research. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19107862

34. Andreas Grassauer, Regina Weinmuellner, Christiane Meier, Alexander Pretsch, Eva Prieschl-Grassauer, and Hermann Unger (September 2008). Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection. Published in Virology Journal. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2562995/

35. Andrea Cristine Koishi, Paula Rodrigues Zanello, verson Miguel Bianco, Juliano Bordignon, and Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos (December 2012). Screening of Dengue Virus Antiviral Activity of Marine Seaweeds by an In Situ Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Published in PLoS One. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3515490/

36. Yu P, Chao X (January 2013). Statistics-based optimization of the extraction process of kelp polysaccharide and its activities. Published in Carbohydrate polymers. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23044143

37. Park KY, Jang WS, Yang GW, Rho YH, Kim BJ, Mun SK, Kim CW, Kim MN (July 2012). A pilot study of silver-loaded cellulose fabric with incorporated seaweed for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Published in Clinical and experimental dermatology. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22439868

38. Yang JH (December 2012). Topical application of fucoidan improves atopic dermatitis symptoms in NC/Nga mice. Published in Phytotherapy research. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22431003

39. Capitanio B, Sinagra JL, Weller RB, Brown C, Berardesca E (June 2012). Randomized controlled study of a cosmetic treatment for mild acne. Published in Clinical and experimental dermatology. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22369176

40. Skibola CF, Curry JD, VandeVoort C, Conley A, Smith MT (February 2005). Brown kelp modulates endocrine hormones in female sprague-dawley rats and in human luteinized granulosa cells. Published in The Journal of nutrition. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15671230

41. Teas J, Hurley TG, Hebert JR, Franke AA, Sepkovic DW, Kurzer MS (May 2009). Dietary seaweed modifies estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Published in The Journal of nutrition. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19321575

42. Kim SK, Vo TS, Ngo DH (2011). Antiallergic benefit of marine algae in medicinal foods. Published in Advances in food and nutrition research. Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22054954

43. Yang JI, Yeh CC, Lee JC, Yi SC, Huang HW, Tseng CN, Chang HW (June 2012). Aqueous extracts of the edible Gracilaria tenuistipitata are protective against H2O2-induced DNA damage, growth inhibition, and cell cycle arrest. Published in Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). Retrieved July 8, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22695230

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Tiredness

tiredness, man, cartoon

Tiredness
© Dominique Chappard

1. Royal College of Psychiatrists (May 2012). Tiredness. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/expertadvice/problemsdisorders/tiredness.aspx

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA Government (May 14, 2012). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Symptoms. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/symptoms/index.html

3. A. GREY CLARKE, F. PRESCOIT (OCTOBER 23 1943). STUDIES IN VITAMIN B DEFICIENCY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MENTAL AND ORAL MANIFESTATIONS. Published in British Medical Journal. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2285232/pdf/brmedj03961-0009.pdf

4. M. H. GLEESON, P. S. GRAVES (July 1974). Complications of dietary deficiency of Vitamin B12 in young Caucasians. Published in Postgraduate Medical Journal. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2495781/pdf/postmedj00307-0064.pdf

5. F. C. B. GITTINGS (June 14, 1947). Vitamin C Deficiency. Correspondence. Published in British Medical Journal. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2053459/pdf/brmedj03785-0031c.pdf

6. Aristidis S. Veskoukis, Aristidis M. Tsatsakis, and Dimitrios Kouretas (January 2012). Dietary oxidative stress and antioxidant defense with an emphasis on plant extract administration. Published in Cell Stress & Chaperones. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227848

7. Chien-Wen Hou, Yung-Shen Tsai, Wei-Horng Jean Chung-Yu Chen, John L Ivy, Chih-Yang Huang, and Chia-Hua Kuo (February 12, 2013). Deep ocean mineral water accelerates recovery from physical fatigue. Published in Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583772

8. Wang W, Bourgeois T, Klima J, Berlan ED, Fischer AN, O'Brien SH (March 2013). Iron deficiency and fatigue in adolescent females with heavy menstrual bleeding. Published in Haemophilia. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23106971

9. Benton D, Cook R (June 1991). The impact of selenium supplementation on mood. Published in Biological psychiatry. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1873372

10. C M Taylor, H F Goode, P J Aggett, I Bremner, B E Walker, J Kelleher (1992). Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation. Published in Journal of Clinical Pathology. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC495830/pdf/jclinpath00415-0087.pdf

11. sa Hkansson, Camilla Brnning, Gran Molin, Diya Adawi, Marie-Louise Hagsltt, Bengt Jeppsson, Margareta Nyman, and Siv Ahrn (March 23, 2012). Blueberry Husks and Probiotics Attenuate Colorectal Inflammation and Oncogenesis, and Liver Injuries in Rats Exposed to Cycling DSS-Treatment. Published in PLoS One. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3311639

12. Clancy RL, Gleeson M, Cox A, Callister R, Dorrington M, D'Este C, Pang G, Pyne D, Fricker P, Henriksson A (April 2006). Reversal in fatigued athletes of a defect in interferon gamma secretion after administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Published in British journal of sports medicine. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16556792

13. Stacey Cornish and Lewis Mehl-Madrona (September 24, 2008). The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Psychiatry. Published in Integrative Medicine Insights. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3046018

14. Adele Blankfield (September 17, 2012). A Brief Historic Overview of Clinical Disorders Associated with Tryptophan: The Relevance to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Fibromyalgia (FM). Published in International Journal of Tryptophan Research. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3460668

15. Marjolein Huijts, Annelien Duits, Julie Staals, and Robert J. van Oostenbrugge, Leon J. de Windt, Editor (January 20, 2012). Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Fatigue and Depression after Lacunar Stroke. Published in PLoS One. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3262813

16. Berkovitz S, Ambler G, Jenkins M, Thurgood S (July 2009). Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in chronic fatigue syndrome: a retrospective survey. Published in International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20209476

17. Antiel RM, Caudill JS, Burkhardt BE, Brands CK, Fischer PR (August 2011). Iron insufficiency and hypovitaminosis D in adolescents with chronic fatigue and orthostatic intolerance. Published in Southern medical journal. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886073

18. Miwa K, Fujita M (July 2010). Fluctuation of serum vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) concentrations during exacerbation and remission phases in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Published in Heart and vessels. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20676841

19. N G Holm (July 2012). The significance of Mg in prebiotic geochemistry. Published in Geobiology. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510310

20. Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson D (March 30, 1991). Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Published in Lancet. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1672392

21. van Rensburg SJ, Potocnik FC, Kiss T, Hugo F, van Zijl P, Mansvelt E, Carstens ME, Theodorou P, Hurly PR, Emsley RA, Taljaard JJ (May 15, 2001). Serum concentrations of some metals and steroids in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome with reference to neurological and cognitive abnormalities. Published in Brain research bulletin. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11470334

22. Maes M, Mihaylova I, De Ruyter M (February 2006). Lower serum zinc in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): relationships to immune dysfunctions and relevance for the oxidative stress status in CFS. Published in Journal of affective disorders. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338007

23. Frank H Duffy, Gloria B McAnulty, Michelle C McCreary, George J Cuchural, and Anthony L Komaroff (July 1, 2011). EEG spectral coherence data distinguish chronic fatigue syndrome patients from healthy controls and depressed patients-A case control study. Published in BMC Neurology. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146818

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31. Maes M, Mihaylova I, Leunis JC (December 2005). In chronic fatigue syndrome, the decreased levels of omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids are related to lowered serum zinc and defects in T cell activation. Published in Neuro endocrinology letters. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16380690

32. A Venket Rao, Alison C Bested, Tracey M Beaulne, Martin A Katzman, Christina Iorio, John M Berardi, and Alan C Logan (2009). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Published in Gut Pathogens. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2664325

33. Shmarakov IO, Hnep NV, Marchenko MM (November - December 2011). Biochemical features of cancer cachexia under conditions of different provision with vitamin A. Published in Ukrainskii biokhimicheskii zhurnal. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22364025

34. Venu M, Martin E, Saeian K, Gawrieh S (March 14, 2013). High prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D deficiency in patients evaluated for liver transplantation. Published in Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23495130

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37. David R. Kaufman, Jaime De Calisto, Nathaniel L. Simmons, Ashley N. Cruz, Eduardo J. Villablanca, J. Rodrigo Mora, and Dan H. Barouch (August 15, 2011). Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs Vaccine-Elicited Gastrointestinal Immunity. Published in The Journal of Immunology. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3150351

38. Clea Melenotte, Philippe Brouqui, and Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers (September 2012). Severe Measles, Vitamin A Deficiency, and the Roma Community in Europe. Published in Emerging Infectious Diseases. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3437709

39. Zschbitz S, Cheng TY, Neuhouser ML, Zheng Y, Ray RM, Miller JW, Song X, Maneval DR, Beresford SA, Lane D, Shikany JM, Ulrich CM (February 2013). B vitamin intakes and incidence of colorectal cancer: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort. Published in The American journal of clinical nutrition. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23255571

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43. Puri M, Kaur L, Walia GK, Mukhopadhhyay R, Sachdeva MP, Trivedi SS, Ghosh PK, Saraswathy KN (April 2013). MTHFR C677T polymorphism, folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine in recurrent pregnancy losses: a case control study among north Indian women. Published in Journal of perinatal medicine. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23612630

44. Frei B, Birlouez-Aragon I, Lykkesfeldt J (2012). Authors' perspective: What is the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans? Published in Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698272

45. Joris R. Delanghe, Michel R. Langlois, Marc L. De Buyzere, Na Na, Jin Ouyang, Marijn M. Speeckaert, and Mathieu A. Torck (November 2011). Vitamin C deficiency: more than just a nutritional disorder. Published in Genes and Nutrition. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197848

46. Pludowski P, Holick MF, Pilz S, Wagner CL, Hollis BW, Grant WB, Shoenfeld Y, Lerchbaum E, Llewellyn DJ, Kienreich K, Soni M (March 28, 2013). Vitamin D effects on musculoskeletal health, immunity, autoimmunity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, fertility, pregnancy, dementia and mortality-A review of recent evidence. Published in Autoimmunity reviews. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23542507

47. Pekmezci D (2011). Vitamin E and immunity. Published in Vitamins and hormones. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21419272

48. Dimitrios Kirmizis and Dimitrios Chatzidimitriou (September 18, 2009). Antiatherogenic effects of vitamin E: the search for the Holy Grail. Published in Vascular Health and Risk Management. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2747395

49. Ponten SC, Kwee ML, Wolters ECh, Zijlmans JC (July 2007). First case of ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency in the Netherlands. Published in Parkinsonism and related disorders. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17049453

50. Michael J. Ryan, Holly J. Dudash, Megan Docherty, Kenneth B. Geronilla, Brent A. Baker, G. Gregory Haff, Robert G. Cutlip, and Stephen E. Alway (August 10, 2010). Vitamin E and C supplementation reduces oxidative stress, improves antioxidant enzymes and positive muscle work in chronically loaded muscles of aged rats. Published in Experimental Gerontology. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3104015

51. Young-Sang Kim, Kwang-Min Kim, Duck-Joo Lee, Bom-Taeck Kim, Sat-Byul Park, Doo-Yeoun Cho, Chang-Hee Suh, Hyoun-Ah Kim, Rae-Woong Park, and Nam-Seok Joo (October 2011). Women with Fibromyalgia Have Lower Levels of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron and Manganese in Hair Mineral Analysis. Published in The Journal of Korean Medical Science. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3192333

52. Joy L Frestedt, Melanie Walsh, Michael A Kuskowski, and John L Zenk (2008). A natural mineral supplement provides relief from knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Published in Nutrition Journal. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2265739

53. You-Lin Qiao, Sanford M. Dawsey, Farin Kamangar, Jin-Hu Fan, Christian C. Abnet, Xiu-Di Sun, Laura Lee Johnson, Mitchell H. Gail, Zhi-Wei Dong, Binbing Yu, Steven D. Mark, and Philip R. Taylor (April 2009). Total and Cancer Mortality After Supplementation With Vitamins and Minerals: Follow-up of the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial. Published in Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2664089

54. Hiroshi Yasuda, Kazuya Yoshida, Mitsuru Segawa, Ryoichi Tokuda, Toyoharu Tsutsui, Yuichi Yasuda, and Shunichi Magara (September 2009). Metallomics study using hair mineral analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis: relationship between cancer and minerals. Published in Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2728251

55. Meika Foster and Samir Samman (July 2012). Zinc and Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease. Published in Nutrients. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407988

56. Pearce EN, Andersson M, Zimmermann MB (May 2013). Global iodine nutrition: where do we stand in 2013? Published in Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23472655

57. Yunus MB, Dailey JW, Aldag JC, Masi AT, Jobe PC (January 1992). Plasma tryptophan and other amino acids in primary fibromyalgia: a controlled study. Published in The Journal of rheumatology. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1556707

58. Yohei Miyagi, Masahiko Higashiyama, Akira Gochi, Makoto Akaike, Takashi Ishikawa, Takeshi Miura, Nobuhiro Saruki, Etsuro Bando, Hideki Kimura, Fumio Imamura, Masatoshi Moriyama, Ichiro Ikeda, Akihiko Chiba, Fumihiro Oshita, Akira Imaizumi, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Hiroshi Miyano, Katsuhisa Horimoto, Osamu Tochikubo, Toru Mitsushima, Minoru Yamakado, and Naoyuki Okamoto Libing Song, Editor (2011). Plasma Free Amino Acid Profiling of Five Types of Cancer Patients and Its Application for Early Detection. Published in PLoS One. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3168486

59. Young SN (February 2013). The effect of raising and lowering tryptophan levels on human mood and social behaviour. Published in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23440461

60. Vissers YL, Dejong CH, Luiking YC, Fearon KC, von Meyenfeldt MF, Deutz NE (May 2005). Plasma arginine concentrations are reduced in cancer patients: evidence for arginine deficiency? Published in The American journal of clinical nutrition. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15883440

61. ANDREA CAPORALI and COSTANZA EMANUELI (January 2009). Cardiovascular Actions of Neurotrophins. Published in Physiological Reviews. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2836529

62. Miura K, Stamler J, Brown IJ, Ueshima H, Nakagawa H, Sakurai M, Chan Q, Appel LJ, Okayama A, Okuda N, Curb JD, Rodriguez BL, Robertson C, Zhao L, Elliott P; for the INTERMAP Research Group (June 2013). Relationship of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids to blood pressure: the international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure. Published in Journal of hypertension. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572200

63. Gu Z, Wu J, Wang S, Suburu J, Chen H, Thomas MJ, Shi L, Edwards IJ, Berquin IM, Chen YQ (April 2013). Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Affect the Localization and Signaling of PIP3/AKT in Prostate Cancer Cells. Published in Carcinogenesis. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23633519

64. Diana P Brostow, Andrew O Odegaard, Woon-Puay Koh, Sue Duval, Myron D Gross, Jian-Min Yuan, and Mark A Pereira (August 2011). Omega-3 fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3142726

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67. Imani Fooladi AA, Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini H, Nourani MR, Khani S, Alavian SM (February 2013). Probiotic as a novel treatment strategy against liver disease. Published in Hepatitis monthly. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23610585

68. Hsieh FC, Lee CL, Chai CY, Chen WT, Lu YC, Wu CS (April 2013). Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 improves insulin resistance and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in high fructose-fed rats. Published in Nutrition and metabolism. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23590862

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70. Stephan Bose-O'Reilly, Kathleen M. McCarty, Nadine Steckling, and Beate Lettmeier (September 2010). Mercury Exposure and Children's Health. Published in Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096006

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78. Sang-Yeon Suh, Woo Kyung Bae, Hong-Yup Ahn, Sung-Eun Choi, Gyou-Chul Jung, and Chang Hwan Yeom (January 2012). Intravenous Vitamin C administration reduces fatigue in office workers: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Published in Nutrition Journal. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3273429

79. Pacini S, Fiore MG, Magherini S, Morucci G, Branca JJ, Gulisano M, Ruggiero M (September 2012). Could cadmium be responsible for some of the neurological signs and symptoms of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Published in Medical hypotheses. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22795611

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86. Mao Wang, Hong Song, Wei-Qing Chen, Ciyong Lu, Qianshen Hu, Zefang Ren, Yan Yang, Yanjun Xu, Aiming Zhong, and Wenhua Ling (2011). Cancer mortality in a Chinese population surrounding a multi-metal sulphide mine in Guangdong province: an ecologic study. Published in BMC Public Health. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3112132

87. Elena A. Belyaeva, Tatyana V. Sokolova, Larisa V. Emelyanova, and Irina O. Zakharova (2012). Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Heavy Metal-Induced Neurotoxicity: Effects of Cadmium, Mercury, and Copper. Published in The Scientific World Journal. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349094

88. Joseph J. Putila, and Nancy Lan Guo (2011). Association of Arsenic Exposure with Lung Cancer Incidence Rates in the United States. Published in PLoS One. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3189216

89. Matt Cave, Savitri Appana, Mihir Patel, Keith Cameron Falkner, Craig J. McClain, and Guy Brock (December 2010). Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Lead, and Mercury Are Associated with Liver Disease in American Adults: NHANES 2003-2004. Published in Environmental Health Perspectives. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3002193

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Can Thyroid Problems Cause Tiredness?

1. NIH Medline Plus (Spring 2012). The Thyroid and You: Coping with a Common Condition. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/spring12/articles/spring12pg22-23.html on December 3, 2014

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Tiredness and Vitamin C

1. Linus Pauling. (November 9, 2014). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Linus_Pauling&oldid=633156048 on December 4, 2014

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Blood-Brain Barrier: What is It, and How Does It Affect Detoxification of the Brain?

1. Raynoo Thanan, Shinji Oikawa, Yusuke Hiraku, Shiho Ohnishi, Ning Ma, Somchai Pinlaor, Puangrat Yongvanit, Shosuke Kawanishi, and Mariko Murata (24 December 2014). Oxidative Stress and Its Significant Roles in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Cancer. Published in International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Retrieved February 19, 2015 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4307243/

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6. Jaouad Bouayed and Torsten Bohn (July-August 2010). Exogenous antioxidants—Double-edged swords in cellular redox state. Published in Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Retrieved February 19, 2015 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2952083/

7. Kanti Bhooshan Pandey and Syed Ibrahim Rizvi (November-December 2009). Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Published in Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Retrieved February 19, 2015 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835915/

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